Creating humane interfaces using AspectJ
December 07, 2005

Martin Fowler blogged about "minimal" vs. "humane" interface. A minimal interface provides only the basic methods enabling, but not providing, clients to write convenience methods. A humane interface, on the other hand, considers typical uses of the interface and provides convenience methods as a part of the interface itself. Providing convenience methods through a wrapper (similar to the java.util.Collections class) isn’t as natural as providing them as a part of the interface itself. Further, using a wrapper for accessing minor convenience methods (such as List.first() and List.last(), see below) is difficult to justify given the extra code you need to write.

Martin asks "what's the basis for deciding what should be added to a humane interface?". This is a really important question. I have seen fat "humane" interfaces, where many methods had dubious value and only increased the complexity of those interfaces. I believe creating good humane interfaces requires that

Languages such as Java make the separation hard to achieve, since a type needs to define everything in one place and interfaces cannot contain method implementations. We can overcome these limitations using AspectJ. Here core interfaces follow the minimalist approach and aspects introduce convenience methods using inter-type declarations.

For example, you can humanize the access to the List interface using an aspect such as follows:

public aspect HumanizeListAccess {
    public E List<E>.first() {
        return size() > 0 ? get(0) : null;

    public E List<E>.last() {
        return size() > 0 ? get(size()-1) : null;

The aspect introduces two new methods, along with their implementations, to the List interface. Now you can use the interface as follows:

List<string> tickers = new ArrayList</string><string>();


firstTicker = tickers.first();

latestTicker = tickers.last();

The only problem with the above implementation: it works only if you weave this aspect into rt.jar!

Here is another example of humanizing an interface the AOP way (and does not require weaving into rt.jar). Consider the following Inventory interface:

public interface Inventory {

    public void addItem(Item item, int count);

    public void removeItem(Item item, int count);

    public Collection<item> getItems();

    public int getItemCount(Item item);

You can humanize this interface to provide price awareness using an aspect as follows:

public aspect HumanizeInventoryPriceAwareness {

    public Item Inventory.getLeastExpensiveItem() {
        float leastPrice = Float.MAX_VALUE;
        Item leastExpensiveItem = null;

        for(Item item : getItems()) {
            if(item.getPrice() < leastPrice) {
                leastPrice = item.getPrice();
                leastExpensiveItem = item;

        return leastExpensiveItem;

    public Item Inventory.getMostExpensiveItem() {
        ... similar to getLeastExpensiveItem()

    public Collection<Item> Inventory.inRangeItems(float lowPrice, float highPrice) {
        Collection</item><item> inRangeItems = new ArrayList</item><item>();

        for(Item item : getItems()) {
            if((item.getPrice() >= lowPrice)
               || (item.getPrice() < = highPrice)) {

        return inRangeItems;

    public Collection<Item> Inventory.cheaperThanItems(float price) {
        return inRangeItems(0, price);

    public Collection</item><item> Inventory.expensiveThanItems(float price) {
        return inRangeItems(price, Float.MAX_VALUE);

The HumanizeInventoryPriceAwareness aspect uses inter-type declarations introducing new methods, along with their implementations, to the Inventory interfaces. Notice, how cheaperThanItems() and expensiveThanItems() themselves use the convenience methods introduced by the same aspect.

Now you can use the humanized Inventory interface as follows:

Inventory inventory = ...

Item leastExpensive = inventory.getLeastExpensiveItem();

Collection</item><item> itemsForFriends = inventory.inRangeItems(20f, 50f);

Collection</item><item> itemsForSpouse = inventory.expensiveThanItems(400f);

Note that nothing prevents you from including the aspects in the same source file as the interface or even as nested aspects inside the interface. If you do so, you will get compartmentalization instead of full separation.

So far, we relied on static crosscutting alone. We can implement more complex convenience methods when we throw in dynamic crosscutting. Here dynamic crosscutting tracks the required information and static crosscutting exposes it. For example, here we track access to the inventory and expose the last accessed item through a method:

public aspect HumanizeInventoryTracking {

    private Item Inventory.lastAccessedItem;

    public Item Inventory.getLastAccessedItem() {
        return lastAccessedItem;

    after(Inventory inventory, Item item) returning
        : (execution(* Inventory.addItem(Item, ..))
           || execution(* Inventory.removeItem(Item,..)))
           && this(inventory)
           && args(item, ..) {
        inventory.lastAccessedItem = item;

You can follow this pattern to implement more interesting methods such as addedSinceItems(Date), mostAccessedItem(), and leastAccessedItem().

Implementing humane interfaces with the help of AOP allows developing and maintaining each module separately. It also allows easy customization of an interface to meet a project’s needs by simply choosing a suitable set of aspects. For example, if price awareness isn’t required in your project simply exclude the HumanizeInventoryPriceAwareness aspect.